Einführung in die jüdische
Literatur und Kultur
Treffen VIII
23.06.11
Der Rest des Semesters
1) 24.06 (Morgen) 8 Uhr SR 221 Alten
(Frauenklinik, Wollweberstrasse 1)
2) 27.06 (Montag), 20 Uhr ESG Lutherhof
(Martin-Luther-Str. 8)
3) 30.06 (Donnerstag), KEIN TREFFEN
4) 07.07 (Donnerstag), Normal
5) 14.07 (Donnerstag), Normal
6) 15.07 (Freitag), Ort TBA
Bischof RÜDIGER von SPEYER
(13 September 1084)
•
Ich, Rüdiger…Bischof von Speyer. Als ich den Weiler Speyer in eine Stadt
verwandelte, glaubte ich die Ehre unseres Ortes noch zu vergößern, wenn ich die
Juden vereinigte.
•
Ich brachte sie darauf außerhalb der Gemeinschaft und des Zusammenwohnens
mit den übrigen Bürgern, und damit sie durch den Übermut des Pöbels nicht
beunruhigt würden, umgab ich sie mit einer Mauer.
Innerhalb ihres Wohnplatzes und außerhalb bis zum Schiffshafen und in dem
Schiffshafen selbst gab ich ihnen das Recht, Gold und Silber frei zu verkaufen, und
eben dieselbe Freiheit gab ich ihnen durch die ganze Stadt.
Wie der Stadtvogt unter den Bürgern, ihr Erzsynagog (Archisynagogus =
Synagogenvorsteher) Klagen, die zwischen oder gegen Juden erhoben warden, zu
entscheiden habe. Ist dieser aber den Streit beizulegen nicht imstande, so soll die
Sache vor den Bischof oder seinen Kämmerer gebracht werden.
Ammen und Knechte auf Miete können sie von den Unsrigen haben.
Endlich als Gipfel meines Wohlwollens habe ich ihnen Gesetze verliehen, die
besser sind, als sie das jüdische Volk in irgendeiner Stadt des deutschen Reiches
besitzt.
•
•
•
•
Bischopf Agobard of Lyons (822-828)
“True Christians…should separate themselves from the
company of infidels…especially Jews, who are quite well
settled in this city. For it seems to be most unworthy and
improper for our faith that the sons of light be led into
obscurity by associating themselves with the sons of
darkness, and that the Church of Christ, which must be
fittingly prepared without stain or blotch for the
embraces of her celestial spouse should be discolored
through contact with the repudiated and reddled
synagogue. Yet, we see this evil (of comradeship, dining
in common, and even sexual debauchery through which
the faith is endangered) growing and increasing daily.”
Pope Calixtus II (1119-24), “Sicut Judaeis”
“although in many ways the disbelief of the Jews
must be condemned…they must not be
oppressed greviously by the faithful”
“Servi Camerae Regis”
• Servants of the royal chamber
• “Kammerknechtschaft” in dem Heiligen
Römischen Reich
• Phrase from 13th Century, reflects earlier
situation
• Jews as collective property of Ruler (i.e. not
citizens)
• Vorteile und Nachteile:
– Protected, special conditions, higher status than many
– At whim of ruler, resented by general populace
“Servi Camerae Regis”
• "Laws of Edward the Confessor" (England, 12th
Century)
• “All Jews, wherever in the realm they are, must
be under the king's liege protection and
guardianship, nor can any of them put himself
under the protection of any powerful person
without the king's license, because the Jews
themselves and all their chattels are the king's. If,
therefore, anyone detain them or their money,
the king may claim them, if he so desire and if he
is able, as his own.”
Kreuzzüge
• 1095 Papst Urban II aufruft zur “Befreiung der
Heiligen Stätten” bei einem Konzil in
Clermont, Frankreich
• Clermont unter den Juden: “Har Afel”
(Dunkelberg); Kreuzfahrer: “to´im” from
“ta´ah” (umherirren, taumeln, irre gehen)
• Gewalt gegen Juden in Rheingebiet bei ersten
drei Kreuzzügen: 1096-, 1145-, 1189• Speyer z.B.: 1084, 1090 Charters; 1096 Gewalt
Kreuzzüge
• “Wir wollen die Feinde Gottes im Osten bekämpfen, wofür wir
große Entfernungen überwinden müssen. Das ist eine
verfehlte Mühe, da wir schon hier vor unseren Augen die
Juden haben, die doch die ärgsten Feinde Gottes sind.”
(aus Guibert de Nogent, Geschichte seines Lebens)
Kreuzzüge
• “The Crusader Emico (the one who surrounded Mainz) and the rest
of his band held a council and, after sunrise, attacked the Jews in
the hall with arrows and lances. Breaking the bolts and doors, they
killed the Jews, about 700 in number, who in vain resisted the force
and attack of so many thousands. They killed the women, also, and
with their swords pierced tender children of whatever age and sex.
The Jews seeing that their Christian enemies were attacking them
and their children, and that they were sparing no age, likewise fell
upon one another, brother, children, wives, and sisters, and thus
they perished at each other´s hands. Horrible to say, mothers cut
the throats of nursing children with knives and stabbed others,
preferring them to perish thus by their own hands rather than to be
killed by the weapons of the uncircumcised.”
(aus Albert of Aix)
Kreuzzüge
• Aus der Chronik (um 1140) von Solomon bar Samson von Speyer:
• “Inquire now and look about, was there ever such an
abundant sacrifice as this since the days of the primeval
Adam? Were there ever eleven hundred offerings on one
day, each one of them like the sacrifice of Isaac, the son of
Abraham?”
• Hearing of Crusader intentions, “the [Jews] resorted to the
custom of our ancestors, repentance, prayer, and charity…But
their Father did not answer them; He obstructed their
prayers, concealing Himself in a cloud through which their
prayers could not pass, and He abhorred their tent, and He
removed them out of His sight…this was the generation that
had been chosen by Him to be His portion, for they had the
strength and the fortitude to stand in his Sanctuary, and fulfill
His word, and sanctify His Great Name in His world.”
Kreuzzüge
• “Fathers fell upon their sons, being slaughtered upon one another,
and they slew one another—each man his kin, his wife, his children;
bridegrooms slew their betrothed, and merciful women their only
children. They all accepted the divine decree wholeheartedly and,
as they yielded up their souls to the Creator, cried out: ‘Hear O
Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One.’
• “God, the maker of peace, turned aside and averted His eyes from
His people, and consigned them to the sword. No prophet, seer, or
man of wise heart was able to comprehend how the sin of the
people infinite in number was deemed so great as to cause the
destruction of so many lives in the various Jewish communities.
The martyrs endured the extreme penalty normally inflicted only
upon one guilty of murder. Yet, it must be stated with certainty that
God is a righteous judge and we are to blame.”
Kreuzzüge
“For since the day on which the Second Temple was
destroyed, their like had not arisen, nor shall there be
their like again—for they sanctified and bore witness to
the Oneness of God´s Name with all their heart and
with all their soul and with all their might. Happy are
they and happy is their lot, for all of them are destined
for eternal life in the World-to-Come—and may my
place be amongst them.”
Martyrdom
• “Kiddush ha-Shem” (Sanctification of God´s
Name: in cases of idolatry, murder, adultery)
• A widespread ideal, but also qualified, for
example by Maimonides and R. Meir of
Rothenberg (1215-1293):
• “although a Jew is required to choose death
rather than be forced to worship idols, should he
violate this law, he would not become
disqualified as a witness, though he would be
guilty of having committed a sin”
Fourth Lateran Council (1215)
• Restricted interest rates in moneylending [key Jewish occupation in world
where Christian forbidden to charge one another interest]
• Prohibited conversion back to Judaism, Jewish holding of public office,
required specific Jewish garb (this borrowed from Islamic context),
restricted contact between Jews and Christians
•
“In several provinces, a difference in vestment distinguishes the Jews or
the Saracens from the Christians; but in others, the confusion has reached
such proportions that a difference can no longer be perceived. Hence, at
times it has occurred that Christians have had sexual intercourse in error
with Jewish or Saracen women and Jews or Saracens with Christian
women. That the crime of such a sinful mixture shall no longer find
evasion or cover under the pretext of error, we order that they [Jews and
Saracens] of both sexes, in all Christian lands and at all times, shall be
publicly differentiated from the rest of the population by the quality of
their garment, especially since that is ordained by Moses…”
Toldot Yeshu (Das Leben Jesus)
• Yeshu: “may his name and memory be erased”
• “One day Yeshu walked in front of the Sages with his head
uncovered, showing shameful disrespect. At this, the discussion
arose as to whether this behavior did not truly indicate that Yeshu
was an illegitimate child and the son of a niddah (menstruant).
Moreover, the story tells that while the rabbis were discussing the
Talmudic Tractate on Damages, he gave his own impudent
interpretation of the law and in an ensuing debate he held that
Moses could not be the greatest of the prophets if he had to
receive counsel from Jethro. This led to further inquiry as to the
antecedents of Yeshu, and it was discovered…that he was the
illegitimate son of Joseph Pandera. Miriam admitted it. After this
became known, it was necessary for Yesu to flee to upper Galilee.”

selbst gab ich ihnen das Recht, Gold und Silber frei zu verkaufen