11th European Space Weather Week
Dr. Alejandro Salado et al.
17.11.2014 Liege, Belgium
A Governance-Driven Solution for a European Space
Weather Monitoring System
A Governance-Driven Solution for a European Space
Weather Monitoring System
Requirements overview and major system drivers
System
performance
S/C
designers
8 service
domains
37 services
303 products
3000+
requirements
400+ assets
S/C
operators
Human
spaceflight
Launch
operators
SST
Non-space
operators
General
data
services
Satellite
com & nav
11th European Space Weather Week 17.11.2014
Seite 2
OHB System AG
A Governance-Driven Solution for a European Space
Weather Monitoring System
SWE System Context
11th European Space Weather Week 17.11.2014
Seite 3
OHB System AG
A Governance-Driven Solution for a European Space
Weather Monitoring System
Space Segment
 One mission to a low altitude Earth orbit
 Two missions to a LEO sun-synchronous
orbit
 Two missions on MEO (SSA payloads
hosted)
 Two missions in GEO (SSA payloads
hosted)
 One mission at L1 (preferably SSA
payloads hosted, however dedicated
mission option given as well)
 One mission at L5 (preferably SSA
payloads hosted, however dedicated
mission option given as well)
11th European Space Weather Week 17.11.2014
Seite 4
OHB System AG
A Governance-Driven Solution for a European Space
Weather Monitoring System
Space Segment – SSO Mission 1
 Sun-Synchronous Dawn-Dusk orbit (h~974 km):
 Allows nearly continuous view of the sun
(duration of max 13 min over a yearly three
months period)
SSO Mission 1
 Orbit altitude vs S/C mass had to be traded
 Higher altitude results in less eclipses but more
propellant needed for de-orbiting the S/C
 Wet mass of 858 kg, including the following paylaods:
Radiation Monitor
Soft X-ray solar disk imager
Langmuir probe with VLF spectrometer
Doppler imager
Magnetometer
Ly-alpha imager
E or B antenna with HFMF-LF
receivers/spectrometers
VIS coronograph
EUV solar disk imager
Solar radiospectrographer
VIS solar disk imager
EUV-ray flux monitor
UV-ray flux monitor
11th European Space Weather Week 17.11.2014
Seite 5
OHB System AG
A Governance-Driven Solution for a European Space
Weather Monitoring System
Space Segment – Polar LEO (SSO Mission 2)
 Mission very similar to SSO 1
Polar LEO
 Some payloads require 2 measurement points at same
orbit with 180° phasing
 Launched with VEGA
 Wet mass of 500 kg, including the following paylaods:
GNSS receiver
E or B antenna with HFMF-LF
receivers/spectrometers
Micro particle detector
Magnetometer
Radiaion monitor
Langmuir probe with VLF spectrometer
11th European Space Weather Week 17.11.2014
Seite 6
OHB System AG
A Governance-Driven Solution for a European Space
Weather Monitoring System
Space Segment – Low Altitude Mission
 Required for atmospheric density measurements and
aurora imaging
Low Altitude Mission
 SSO (not Dawn-Dusk)
 Altitude traded with lifetime
 At an altitude of 350 km it is expected to have
about 4 mN of drag force, which results in about
-29 m/rev change in semi-major axis.
 Continuous electric propulsion necessary for
drag compensation
 S/C mass estimated to 815 kg, including the
following payloads:
Accelerometer
Wide-field auroral imager
11th European Space Weather Week 17.11.2014
Seite 7
OHB System AG
A Governance-Driven Solution for a European Space
Weather Monitoring System
Space Segment – MEO Missions
MEO Missions
 Instruments in MEO can be hosted on navigation
satellites – many opportunities
 This enables a significant cost reduction
 Instruments require to be placed in two different S/C
on the same orbit with roughly 180° phasing between
each other.
 The following payloads should be included:
Radiaion monitor
Ion Spectrometer
Magnetometer
11th European Space Weather Week 17.11.2014
Seite 8
OHB System AG
A Governance-Driven Solution for a European Space
Weather Monitoring System
Space Segment – GEO Missions
GEO Missions
 Instruments in GEO can be hosted on Geostationary
satellites – also many opportunities
 This enables a significant cost reduction
 Instruments require to be placed in two different S/C
on the same orbit with roughly 180° phasing between
each other.
GEO
 The following payloads should be included:
Radiaion monitor
Ion Spectrometer
Magnetometer
Micro-particle detector
11th European Space Weather Week 17.11.2014
Seite 9
OHB System AG
A Governance-Driven Solution for a European Space
Weather Monitoring System
Space Segment – L1 Mission
 Approach used was to minimise cost of
mission by minimizing platform size and
dimension.
Sun
 This was achieved by placing the sun
observing payloads in LEO
 A drawback of this approach are the
eclipses in LEO which can obstruct the
FoV, however in SSO they are
minimized.
L1
 Payloads:




Ion Energy Spectrometer
Density probe
3-axis Fluxgate Magnetometer
Radiation Monitoring
11th European Space Weather Week 17.11.2014
Earth
Seite 10
OHB System AG
A Governance-Driven Solution for a European Space
Weather Monitoring System
Space Segment – L5 Mission
 L5 mission is important for monitoring the
Sun-Earth line and to detect anomalies in
the sun behaviour before they are visible
from the Sun-Earth line.
Sun
 Payloads:
 EUV solar disk imager
 Heliospheric imager
 Coronograph imager
1 AU
L5
11th European Space Weather Week 17.11.2014
Seite 11
Earth
OHB System AG
A Governance-Driven Solution for a European Space
Weather Monitoring System
Systems versus Systems of systems
11th European Space Weather Week 17.11.2014
Seite 12
OHB System AG
A Governance-Driven Solution for a European Space
Weather Monitoring System
Analysis approach
1. Contribution of instruments to overall SWE capability
2. Contribution of each satellite (or space mission) to overall SWE capability
3. Uncertainties usually faced by space systems
4. Governance approach
5. Redundancy and deployment alternatives
6. Qualitative adaptability assessment
7. Redefinition of SWE (space segment) architecture
8. Deployment strategy
11th European Space Weather Week 17.11.2014
Seite 13
OHB System AG
A Governance-Driven Solution for a European Space
Weather Monitoring System
Dependencies M products and derived products
11th European Space Weather Week 17.11.2014
Seite 14
SC-008-M
SC-005-M
SC-002-M
AG-009-M
AG-005-M
IT-010-M
IT-007-M
IT-002-M
MR-014-M
MR-011-M
MR-008-M
IP-001-M
L1-009-M
L1-006-M
L1-003-M
SU-032-M
SU-027-M
SU-024-M
SU-021-M
SU-017-M
SU-005-M
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
OHB System AG
A Governance-Driven Solution for a European Space
Weather Monitoring System
Capability loss analysis
SWE Capability loss
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
SWE capability loss
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
SSO LEO Polar LEO Low LEO
11th European Space Weather Week 17.11.2014
Seite 15
L1
L5
OHB System AG
A Governance-Driven Solution for a European Space
Weather Monitoring System
16
Influence level on SWE
capability
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SolO/STIX
SDO/HMI
SoplO/RPW
SolO/METIS
CLUSTER/…
NGRM
CLUSTER/…
MDD
SWARMGPS
OCAM
SolO/SWA
NGRM
SolO/METIS
Influence level on
SWE capability
Capability contribution analysis
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
SSO LEO Polar LEO Low LEO
11th European Space Weather Week 17.11.2014
Seite 16
L1
L5
OHB System AG
A Governance-Driven Solution for a European Space
Weather Monitoring System
Capability for money
0.016
Capability for money
0.014
0.012
0.01
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
0
SSO LEO Polar LEO Low LEO
L1
L5
...yet SSO LEO maximum absolute capability
11th European Space Weather Week 17.11.2014
Seite 17
OHB System AG
SolO/STIX
SWAP
SDO/HMI
SolO/PHI
SoplO/RPW
Sol/HI
SolO/METIS
GOES/EXIS
CLUSTER/CIS
SOHO/SUMER
NGRM
SolO/mag
CLUSTER/CIS
SolO/RPW
MDD
NGRM
SWARMGPS
SolO/mag
OCAM
SWARM acc
SolO/SWA
SpöP/mag
NGRM
SOHO/EIT
SolO/METIS
SolO/HI
Influence level on SWE
capability
A Governance-Driven Solution for a European Space
Weather Monitoring System
Other hosting opportunities?
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
11th European Space Weather Week 17.11.2014
Seite 18
OHB System AG
A Governance-Driven Solution for a European Space
Weather Monitoring System
Impact of NGRM (in-situ) not driving capability analysis
Influence on SWE capability
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SSO LEO Polar LEO Low LEO
L1
L5
0.016
Capability for money
0.014
0.012
0.01
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
0
SSO LEO
11th European Space Weather Week 17.11.2014
Seite 19
Polar LEO
Low LEO
L1
L5
OHB System AG
A Governance-Driven Solution for a European Space
Weather Monitoring System
Governance approach
Product Asset
L1-001-M
L1-001-M
L1-003-M
L1-003-M
L1-003-M
L1-003-M
L1-003-M
L1-004-M
L1-004-M
L1-004-M
L1-004-M
L1-004-M
L1-004-M
L1-005-M
L1-005-M
L1-005-M
L1-005-M
L1-005-M
L1-005-M
L1-005-M
L1-005-M
L1-005-M
L1-005-M
L1-006-M
L1-006-M
L1-006-M
L1-006-M
L1-006-M
L1-007-M
L1-007-M
L1-007-M
L1-007-M
L1-007-M
L1-007-M
L1-008-M
L1-008-M
L1-008-M
L1-009-M
L1-009-M
L1-009-M
L1-009-M
L1-009-M
L1-010-M
L1-010-M
L1-010-M
L1-010-M
L1-010-M
L1-010-M
L1-011-M
L1-011-M
L1-011-M
L1-011-M
L1-011-M
L1-011-M
SU-021-M
SU-021-M
SU-021-M
SU-022-M
SU-022-M
SU-022-M
SU-022-M
SU-032-M
SU-032-M
SU-032-M
SU-032-M
IP-001-M
IP-001-M
IP-001-M
SU-005-M
SU-005-M
SU-005-M
SU-005-M
SU-015-M
SU-015-M
SU-015-M
SU-015-M
SU-015-M
SU-015-M
SU-015-M
SU-015-M
SU-015-M
Magnetospheric Particle Sensor
High energy particle spectrometer
High energy particle spectrometer
High energy particle spectrometer
High energy particle spectrometer
High energy particle spectrometer
High energy particle spectrometer
High energy ion radiation monitor
High energy ion radiation monitor
High energy ion radiation monitor
High energy ion radiation monitor
High energy ion radiation monitor
High energy ion radiation monitor
Medium ion energy detector
Medium ion energy detector
Medium ion energy detector
Medium ion energy detector
Medium ion energy detector
Medium ion energy detector
Medium ion energy detector
Medium ion energy detector
Medium ion energy detector
Medium ion energy detector
Medium electron energy detector
Medium electron energy detector
Medium electron energy detector
Medium electron energy detector
Medium electron energy detector
Medium electron energy detector
Medium electron energy detector
Medium electron energy detector
Medium electron energy detector
Medium electron energy detector
Medium electron energy detector
3-axis Fluxgate-magnetometer
3-axis Fluxgate-magnetometer
3-axis Fluxgate-magnetometer
Ion energy spectrometer
Ion energy spectrometer
Ion energy spectrometer
Ion energy spectrometer
Ion energy spectrometer
Langmuir probe
Langmuir probe
Langmuir probe
Langmuir probe
Langmuir probe
Langmuir probe
Langmuir probe
Langmuir probe
Langmuir probe
Langmuir probe
Langmuir probe
Langmuir probe
EUV solar disk imager
EUV solar disk imager
EUV solar disk imager
WA coronagraph
WA coronagraph
WA coronagraph
Wide Angle Coronagraph
WA coronagraph
WA coronagraph
WA coronagraph
WA coronagraph
High energy particle spectrometer
High energy particle spectrometer
High energy particle spectrometer
Solar disk magnetograph
Solar disk magnetograph
Solar disk magnetograph
Solar disk magnetograph
EUV solar disk imager
EUV solar disk imager
EUV solar disk imager
EUV solar disk imager
EUV solar disk imager
EUV solar disk imager
EUV solar disk imager
EUV solar disk imager
EUV solar disk imager
Europ
ean
no
no
no
no
no
shared
no
no
no
no
shared
shared
yes
shared
shared
no
shared
shared
no
no
no
no
yes
shared
shared
no
no
yes
no
no
no
shared
yes
no
no
yes
no
no
no
no
yes
no
yes
no
no
no
yes
no
no
no
no
yes
no
no
yes
no
shared
no
no
yes
shared
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
shared
yes
shared
no
yes
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
year
NOAA 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
source 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
1
1
1
1
1
yes
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
yes
1
1
1
1
1
yes
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
yes
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
yes
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
yes
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
yes
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
yes
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
yes
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
yes
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
yes
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
yes
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
yes
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
yes
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
yes
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
yes
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
yes
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
no
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
yes
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
no
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
yes
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
no
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
yes
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
yes
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
yes
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
yes
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
yes
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
yes
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
yes
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
yes
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
yes
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
yes
1
1
1
1
1
yes
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
no
Limited to European assets – What is the cost of ownership?
11th European Space Weather Week 17.11.2014
Seite 20
OHB System AG
A Governance-Driven Solution for a European Space
Weather Monitoring System
Adaptability assessment – Approach
UNCERTAINTIES
DESIGN OPTIONS
Satellite duplication
Launch delay
Satellite duplication & phased
deployment
New user requirements
Instrument duplication within
satellite
In-orbit failure
Budget fluctuation
Instrument duplication in different
orbit
Qualititative – Not probabilistic based due to time limitations
11th European Space Weather Week 17.11.2014
Seite 21
OHB System AG
A Governance-Driven Solution for a European Space
Weather Monitoring System
Adaptability assessment – Schedule delay example
Nominal
Redundant
satellites
Redundant
satellites &
Phased
deployment
Year
4
5
6
7
Satellite 1
Satellite 2
Capability
X
X
X
X
Year
4
5
6
7
Satellite 1n
Satellite 1r
Satellite 2n
Satellite 2r
Capability
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Year
4
5
6
7
Satellite 1n
Satellite 1r
Satellite 2n
Satellite 2r
Capability
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
11th European Space Weather Week 17.11.2014
Seite 22
8
9
10
11
X
X
X
X
8
9
10
11
DELAY
DELAY
X
X
X
X
X
X
8
9
10
11
X
DELAY
X
X
X
X
X
X
OHB System AG
A Governance-Driven Solution for a European Space
Weather Monitoring System
Adaptability assessment – Results
Case
0. Baseline
1. Satellite
duplication
2. Satellite
duplication &
phased
deployment
3. Overlapping
replenishment
4. Instrument
duplication with
each satellite
5. Instrument
duplication in
different orbits
Sch New user
delay
reqs
0
3
0
3
Budget
delay
0
0
In-orbit
failure
0
5
Investment Investment
profile
5
0
0
0
4
4.5
4
5
0
5
4
4.5
4
4
3.5
3
0
3
0
2
2
5
2.5
2
2.5
3
1
5
11th European Space Weather Week 17.11.2014
Seite 23
OHB System AG
A Governance-Driven Solution for a European Space
Weather Monitoring System
Deployment strategy – New insights from adaptability
Influence on SWE
capability
12
10
Option a) GOES/EXIS moves from
SSO to L1
8
6
4
Option b) SWAP+SolO/PRW move
from SSO to L1
2
0
SSO
LEO
Polar
LEO
Low
LEO
L1
L5
L1
L1
Option aOption b
So... Why Option a) not baseline for L1?
Because of ADAPTABILITY!
SWE Capability for money
0.018
0.016
0.014
0.012
0.01
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
0
SSO
LEO
11th European Space Weather Week 17.11.2014
Seite 24
Polar Low LEO
LEO
L1
L5
L1
L1
Option a Option b
OHB System AG
A Governance-Driven Solution for a European Space
Weather Monitoring System
Deployment strategy – Results
Objective: maximize cumulated capability
1. L1 satellite option a)
2. SSO satellite
3. Polar LEO satellite
4. L5 satellite
SWE Capability for money
0.018
0.016
0.014
0.012
0.01
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002
0
5. Low altitude LEO
SSO
LEO
Polar
LEO
Low
LEO
L1
L5
L1
L1
Option Option
a
b
But L1 replenishment with BASELINE L1 satellite!
11th European Space Weather Week 17.11.2014
Seite 25
OHB System AG
A Governance-Driven Solution for a European Space
Weather Monitoring System
Conclusions and future work
 A cost-effective solution for a SWE has been presented
 The value of governance, capability and adaptability analyses was proven by showcasing
their application on the space segment of the proposed architecture
 Future work is proposed to expand such activities to the full SWE and to:





Model quantitatively all types of uncertainties
Validate capability/value models of SWE services
Automate generation of design alternatives
Automate generation of uncertain future scenarios
Perform Monte Carlo analyses with optimization to identify best-value design
alternatives and deployment strategies
11th European Space Weather Week 17.11.2014
Seite 26
OHB System AG

Hier steht das Thema des Vortrages über maximal zwei Zeilen