„Education and Gender in Norway“
HERBERT
ZOGLOWEK,
University in
Tromsø Norwegian
Arctic University
„Norway is usually seen as
a virtual forerunner and
exemplary on the front of
‚gender equality‘ “
„Gender equality is no
longer the big issue…“
Gender in Norwegian Society
1860 – Women were allowed to work in school
1913 – Women received the general right to vote
1976 – Women were officially allowed to play
soccer within the NFA
1978 – Norway appointed as the first country
an Equality Attorney (Ombudswoman)
– Act on gender equality
1993 – First female bishop in Norway
Gender in Norwegian Society
Since the 80s the proportion of femal ministers
was and is about 50 %
 Women has joined up with men in various
positions in working life
but
 Women still earn 15% less than men
 Women still take care of child and women almost
exclusively take the legal parental leave

Act on gender equality
(9. Juni 1978)
The same opportunities for both sexes in
society, in the family, in education and in
professional work are expressly highlighted.
In addition it is particularly emphasized that
this law is aimed to improve the position of
women in society.
Education act and syllabus
1732 – First Education Act
1827 – New Education Act
1959 – First common Education Act
1969 – Extension of compulsary education attendance till nine year: the same education
for all
1974 – Syllabus: Gender equality as a content
1987 – Syllabus: Idea of gender equality as an
education principle
1996 – Actionplan ”Gender equality in School”
Action plan ”Gender equality in School”

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

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Equality conducive learning atmosphere
Gender balance on choice of subject and
profession
Equilibrium in teacher staff
Development of gender identity in primary school
Differences at marks and grades
Differences at early school leaving
Genderspecific bullying and sexual victimization
Prioritization of objectives
in primary school
(Støren, u.a. 2010)
What are the gender-related projects / priorities that
have been worked on in the past year? (in %)
(Støren, u.a. 2010)
Increasing the motivation to read and improvement of reading skills among boys
72
Raising awareness of training options and highlighting gender-related, non-traditional
choices
22
Motivation for sciences, especially for girls
22
Prevention of gender-specific mobbing
23
Equilibrium between men and women within the teaching staff
25
Equilibrium between men and women within leadership positions
5
Women bastion School
Primary
School



Head mistress
52 %
Positionen of leadership 63 %
Women teacher
73 %
Secondary
School
36,5 %
47 %
48,6 %
“The biggest danger to equality is
the myth that we have it”
(Yssen, 2010).
Kroppsøving – Physical Education
Boys
> 1920
< 1920
< 1950
1964
< 1987
Girls
military gymnastics - - Military gymnastics dance gymnastics
Games and
Games and
physical education conviviality
first common schoolbook
Sports, health, lifestyle, friluftsliv
1978 – Erste Fussballmeisterschaft der Frauen
1979 – Gleichstellungsombud
- Keine Geschlechterdiskriminierung in der Reklame
1980 – Änderung im Gesetz zur Namensgebung
1981 – G.H. Brundtland 1 weibliche Ministerpräsidentin und Parteinführerin
1983 – Frauen dürfen zum Wehrdienst
- AP: Quotenregelung: 40% Frauen in allen Parteiorganen, incl. Regierung
1984 – Grete Waitz gewinnt die erste olympische Goldmedaille im Marathonlauf
1987 – das ”Babyjahr” wird von 18 auf 42 Monate erhöht
1988 – Alle öffentlichen Organe sollen 40% Frauen haben
1990 – Grundgesetzänderung zugunsten weiblicher Thronfolge
1991 – Neues Scheidungsgesetz
1992 – Erziehungsarbeit ergibt pro Jahr 3 Pensionspunkte
1993 – Mehr weibliche als männliche Studenten legen das Staatsexamen ab (51%)
1994 – Einführung des ”Vaterjahres” 4 Wochen des Babyjahres darf der Vater nehmen
– Gesetz zum Schutz gegen mobbing und sexuelle Übergriffe am Arbeitsplatz
- Liv Arnesen geht als 1.Frau allein mit Skiern zum Südpol
1999 – Eldbjørg Løwer erste weibliche Verteidigungsministerin

„Gleichstellung ist ja nicht mehr das grosse Thema…“ –