The Rise of the Nazi Dictatorship
From the Weimar Republic to Adolf Hilter, 1919-1933
Weimar Republic, 1919-1933
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Republic was alien to German political culture.
“November criminals” had created republic.
Tepid support came from “Centrist” parties
Left and Right (40% of electorate) wanted to destroy
Weimar Republic
Left
KPD
Center
Liberals, German Democrats,
SPD, Catholic Center Party
Right
Nationalists,
NSDAP
Problems of Weimar Republic
• Sparticists Rebellion/execution of Wilhelm
Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg
• Kapp Putch
• Ruhr Occupation (1923)
• Hyperinations (1923)
• Street violence: left vs. right
• Of 376 political murders between 1919 and
1922, 354 committed by right wingers.
• Beer Hall Putsch (1923)
A Glimmer of Hope, 1925-1929
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Gustav Stresemann (1878-1929)
Dawes Plan/Young Plan
Fulfillment
Admission to League of Nation
Intellectuals drift toward Weimar: “Where
they burn books, they will one day burn
children.”—Thomas Mann, Magic Lantern.
Stresemann,
Chancellor, 1923,
Foreign Secretary,
1924-1929
Great Depression
• High unemployment
• Right blames Weimar Government for
Depression; Left sees it as the end of
capitalism.
• Nazi Party Grew in Numbers—largest
party in Reichstag in 1931
• 1932 Elections see Communist Party
gains: Big Business supports Hitler
• From Heinrich Brüning to Adolf Hitler; Jan
30, 1933
Date
Votes
%age
Seats
in Reichstag
Background
May 1924
1,918,300
6.5
32 Hitler in prison
December
1924
907,300
3.0
14
May 1928
810,100
2.6
12
6,409,600
18.3
107 After the financial crisis
July 1932
13,745,800
37.4
230
November
1932
11,737,000
33.1
196
March
1933
17,277,000
43.9
288
September
1930
Hitler is released from
prison
After Hitler had become
Chancellor
Adolf Hitler, 1889-1945
Rassenpolitik und
Lebensraum
Hitler’s contradiction: Use of
Technology to bring back
a Medieval social order
HITLER and Nazi Party
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June 1934—purge of Ernst Röhm and Sturmabteilung
Schutzstaffel und Geheimestaatspolizei
1934 Nuremburg Party Congress
Kristallnacht, November 9, 1938
Horst Wessel/Horst Wesel Lied
Wehrmacht oath (August 2, 1934)
"Ich schwöre bei Gott diesen heiligen Eid, daß ich dem
Führer des Deutschen Reiches und Volkes Adolf Hitler,
dem Oberbefehlshaber der Wehrmacht, unbedingten
Gehorsam leisten und als tapferer Soldat bereit sein will,
jederzeit für diesen Eid mein Leben einzusetzen."
• ("I swear by God this sacred oath that to the Leader of
the German state and people, Adolf Hitler, supreme
commander of the armed forces, I shall render
unconditional obedience and that as a brave soldier I
shall at all times be prepared to give my life for this
oath.“)
Undoing of World Order
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Japanese invasion of Manchuria, 1933
Italian invasion of Ethiopia, 1935
German conscription resumes, 1936
Spanish Civil War, 1936-39
Anschluß mit Austria, 1938
Sudetenland/Munich Conference, 1939
Blitzkrieg into Poland, Sept. 1, 1939

From Weimar to Hilter`s Germany