Cercarial Dermatitis in Austria
Status of Research
Christoph Hörweg1, Herbert Auer2 & Helmut
Sattmann3
1
Institute of Zoology, Department of Systematic Zoology, University of Vienna, Austria
2 Department of Medical Parasitology, Clinical Institute of Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, University
of Vienna
3 Department of Invertebrates, Natural History Museum Vienna, Austria
Cercarial Dermatitis in Austria
First Record

Gernot Graefe (1971):
„Experimenteller
Nachweis einer von
Cercarien verur-sachten
Dermatitis am
Neusiedlersee.“
(Sitzungsber. d. Österr. Akad.
d. Wissenschaften,
Mathemat.-naturw. Kl., Abt. 1,
179: 73-79)
Trichobilharzia szidati
Cercarial Dermatitis in Austria
Geographical Distribution

Vorarlberg:
V
T
S
T
 no data

Tyrol:
 Natterersee (1992): CD, Furcocercariae

Salzburg:
 Wallersee, Wolfgangsee (1994): CD
 Badesee Gastein (2002): CD
 Wallersee (2002): Trichobilharzia sp. (Stagnicola fuscus)
Cercarial Dermatitis in Austria
Geographical Distribution
UA

Upper Austria:
 Attersee (1992): CD
St
C
 Some lakes around Linz (2002): CD

Carinthia:
 Wörthersee, Weißensee, etc. (1950 – 90): CD
 Herzogstuhl (2002): ocellate Furcocercariae (Gyraulus
parvus)

Styria:
 Some lakes around Graz (1994): CD, Trichobilharzia
ocellata
(Radix auricularia)
Cercarial Dermatitis in Austria
Geographical Distribution
V
B

Burgenland:
 Neusiedlersee (1968-70): CD, T. szidati (L. stagnalis),
Bilharziella polonica (Planorbarius corneus)
 Neusiedlersee (1998): B. polonica (P. corneus)

Vienna:
 Lobau (1983): CD, T. ocellata (L. stagnalis)
 Lobau (1993, 1994): CD, Furcocercariae
 Ölhafen (1997): T. ocellata (L. stagnalis, R. ovata)
 Alte Donau (2001, 2002): CD
 Neue Donau (2003): CD
Cercarial Dermatitis in Austria
Geographical Distribution LA

Lower Austria:









Fischamend/Donau (1971): CD, T. szidati (L. stagnalis)
Sitzenberg (1973): CD, T. szidati (L. stagnalis, R.
auricularia)
St. Veit a.d. Gölsen (1983): CD
Stopfenreuther Au (1994): CD
Wienerwald/Rekawinkel (1998): T. szidati (L. stagnalis)
Schönau/Donau (1998): Trichobilharzia sp. (R. peregra)
Mannswörth (2002): T. sp. (Stagnicola fuscus)
Achau (2002): CD
Fischamend/Donau (2002): T. sp. (Aplexa hypnorum)
Cercarial Dermatitis in Austria
Summary - Status 2003

Causative agents:




Bilharziella polonica
Trichobilharzia szidati
Trichobilharzia ocellata
(?)
Trichobilharzia sp. (?)
Intermediate Hosts:








Lymnaea stagnalis
Radix auricularia
R. ovata
Stagnicola fuscus
Planorbarius corneus
Gyraulus parvus
Aplexa hypnorum
Final hosts:

?
Cercarial Dermatitis in Austria
Alte Donau / Vienna 2002

Date: 21.06.2002, Time: 2 p.m., Weather: hot &
sunny
32°C
27°C
Cercarial Dermatitis in Austria
Alte Donau / Vienna 2002

Number of snails: 86 (from 6 collection sites)



6 Radix sp., 36 Planorbis planorbis
23 Bithynia tentaculata, 20 Physa acuta
=> no cercariae found with “cercarial release
experiments”

Conclusion:


more local/specific collections (dependent on
occurrence of cercarial dermatitis) needed
Sample size should be extended
Cercarial Dermatitis in Austria
Achau / Lower Austria 2002



Date:
03.07.2002
Time:
2 p.m.
Weather:
sunny +
windy
27°C
25°C
Cercarial Dermatitis in Austria
Achau / Lower Austria 2002
Cercarial Dermatitis in Austria
Achau / Lower Austria 2002

Number of snails: 4 (collected one week before)




4 Radix ovata
=> only echinostome cercariae found
=> but massive CD
Conclusion:

Snail population maybe broken down after continuous
heat
(many empty shells) or snails in mud in deeper regions
(2,5 – 3 metres)
Cercarial Dermatitis in Austria
Wöllersdorf / Lower Austria
2003



34°C
Date:
11.06.2003
Time:
2.30 p.m.
Weather:
hot & sunny
24°C
Cercarial Dermatitis in Austria
Wöllersdorf / Lower Austria
2003

Number of snails: 83 (collected the last days)



63 Planorbarius corneus
5 Lymnaea stagnalis, 3 Stagnicola sp., 1 Radix sp.
=> no cercariae found with “cercarial release
experiments”

Conclusion:

Sample size should be extended, most likely some
more snails are within the many water plants
Cercarial Dermatitis in Austria
Molecularbiology – Preliminary
results


A specific PCR for the amplification of the
ITS regions and 5.8S rRNA gene from
cercariae and sporocysts in the digestive
glands of snails has been established.
High sequence similarities of isolates within
each host species and significant
dissimilarities between isolates of different
host species could be determined.
Cercarial Dermatitis in Austria
Project applied - Objectives
SYSTEMATICS & TAXONOMY
 To install a method for the differentation of intermediate trematode
stages and host snail taxa
 To create an inventory of the species spectrum of the
schistosomes which cause cercarial dermatitis and of
the intermediate host snails
 To record snail host specificity and the host spectrum
of schistosomes
Cercarial Dermatitis in Austria
Project applied - Objectives
EPIDEMIOLOGY & ECOLOGY
 To study the epidemiology and community structure of trematodes
in selected snail species
 To record the population dynamics of snails and the
development of schistosomes within snails
 To find correlations between population dynamics and
diversity of hosts and parasites
Cercarial Dermatitis in Austria
Project applied - Objectives
ECONOMY & MEDICINE
 To ensure the proper diagnosis of cercarial dermatitis
 To generate guidelines for a risk evaluation and to develop
an early warning system
 To propose a catalogue of measures to minimise the risk
of cercarial dermatitis
Cercarial Dermatitis in Austria
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Cercarial Dermatitis in Austria