Zeit, Tempus und Aspekt im Englischen Indirekte Rede Back-Shift Direkte Rede Indirekte Rede I enjoy playing cricket Jim said that he enjoyed playing cricket John said that he loathed cricket Everyone thought he was being a fool I told her she had deceived me She was asked whether she had seen the accused on the night of the 25th I loathe cricket He's being a fool You've deceived me Did you see the accused on the night of the 25th Wenn das Verb im Hauptsatz in der Vergangenheit steht, wird das Tempus des Verbs des Nebensatzes in die Vergangenheit verschoben. Back-Shift Rede über 'now' (Present Tense) Rede über 'then' (Present Perf. oder Past) Vergangener Bericht einer Rede über ... (Past Tense) 'then' (Past Tense) Vergangener Bericht 'before einer Rede über ... then' (Past Tense) (Past Perf.) Back-Shift Direkte Rede I loathe cricket The police are still looking for him No one has ever spoken to me Virtue is knowledge I am blameless Indirekte Rede John confessed that he loathes cricket We were told the police are still looking for him She complained that no one has ever spoken to her Socrates said that virtue was knowledge Socrates said the virtue is knowledge Socrates said that he was blameless *Socrates said that he is blameless Erlebte Rede – Free Indirect Speech Erlebte Rede (free indirect speech) ist eine häufige Erscheinung in der erzählenden Prosa. Sie ist eine Form der indirekten Rede, bei der die Hauptsätze, die üblicherweise die Indikatoren der indirekten Rede sind, wegfallen: Agnes: "Why do they always have to pick on me?" (direkte Rede) Agnes asked why they always had to bick on her (indirekte Rede) Why did they always (groaned Agnes) have to pick on her? – oder einfach – Why did they always have to pick on her? (erlebte Rede) Erlebte Rede – Free Indirect Speech Anders als in der indirekten Rede kann in der erlebten Rede die Struktur von Frage- und Ausrufungssätzen der direkten Rede beibehalten werden: Could he be imagining things? (wondered Harry) Here was Bagby at last! (thought John) How many years had he and his sister dreamed of this moment! So that was their plan, was it! Im Gegensatz zur indirekten Rede bleiben die deiktischen Ausdrücke (here, this, now) erhalten. Erlebte Rede My car had been repaired and it was now running more smoothly than ever as I drove down the South Coast. I realised that it would be at least 12 before I reached Brighton, but my appointment was at two, so I would have time for lunch first. As I drove along my thoughts kept going back to what had happened the evening before. Had it really happened or had I been dreaming the whole time? Whatever it had been the evening before, the police car that was now signalling me to stop was certainly not a dream. "May I see your license, sir" the policeman asked. "Do you realise that for the last 2 miles you have been driving 50 mph through a built-up area?" "I'm sorry, officer", I replied. "I know this sounds feeble, but I was thinking of something that happened to me last night." And before he could stop me, I had already finished telling him the remarkable story of the Duke's cat and the Ming vase.