Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg
Curt-Engelhorn Chair in American History
Prof. Dr. Manfred Berg
Winter Term 2008/2009
The Reluctant Empire?
U.S. Foreign Relations in the
20th Century
Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg
1
Empire by Invitation?
The U.S. and Western Europe
 The American Reconstruction of Europe
 The Americanization of European Culture
Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg
Europe in 1945
Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg
George C. Marshall,
1880-1959
 US Army General, Chief of
Staff, 1939-1945
 US Sec. of State,
1947-1949
 US Sec. of Defense,
1950-1951
 Nobel Peace Prize Winner,
1953
Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg
Marshall Plan, 1948 - 1951
 $12.5 billion (about $100 billion in
today‘s currency)
Goals:
 Increase of production
 Expansion of trade
 Financial stability
 European economic cooperation
Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg
Marshall Plan, 1948 - 1951
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United Kingdom: $2.9 billion
France: $2.6 billion
West Germany: $1.3 billion
Italy: $1.3 billion
 Total of $12.5 billion equals 1.2
percent of U.S. GNP during 1948 to
1951.
Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg
Jean Monnet, 1888-1979
 Deputy General of the League
of Nations, 1919-1923
 President of the European
Coal and Steel Community
(ECSC), 1952-1955
 Founder of the Action
Committee for a United
States of Europe, 1955
Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg
U.S. and European Integration
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Strong pillar of containment
Swift economic recovery
Avoid future wars
Solution to the German problem
Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg
Charles de Gaulle,
1890-1970
 Led the Forces Françaises
Libres (free french forces)
during WWII
 Chairman of the Provisional
Government of France,
1944-1946
 President of France,
1959-1969
Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg
John F. Kennedy in Berlin,
1963
Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg
Coca Colonization?
 Coke ad, 1952
Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg
 Coke ad, 1955
Amerika Houses
 The first Amerika Haus in Heidelberg
was located on Uni-Platz in the 1940s
Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg
Cultural Diplomacy
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United States Information Agency
Voice of America
Radio Free Europe
Fulbright Program
Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg
GIs in Europe
Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg
Hollywood in Europe
Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg
Elvis Presley, 1935-1977
Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg
Student Protest in Europe
Rudi Dutschke leads
students in protest
Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg
Angela Davis, b. 1944
Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg
Anti-Americanism?
 Criticism of U.S. foreign policy?
 Criticism of specific aspects of
American society and culture?
 Fundamental rejection of Western
liberalism and democracy?
Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg

The Reluctant Empire? - Ruprecht-Karls