Katrin Müller, Jan-Helge Jacobs, Tina Mengel
Cologne University of Applied Sciences,
Institute of Information Management
Insights and Outlooks: A Retrospective View on the
CrissCross Project
Cologne, 19th July 2010
Insights and Outlooks: A Retrospective View on
the CrissCross Project
CrissCross – Overview
 The Project
 DDC
 SWD
 Mapping Methods
 Retrieval Scenarios
 Perspectives
Cologne, 19th July 2010
Insights and Outlooks: A Retrospective View on
the CrissCross Project
CrissCross – Overview

Aim:
… creation of a thesaurus-based, user-friendly research vocabulary that
facilitates search in heterogeneously indexed collections by mapping
topical headings of the German subject headings authority file
Schlagwortnormdatei (SWD) and the Dewey Decimal Classification
(DDC)

Duration: 2006 – 2010

Conducted by:
German National Library
Cologne University of Applied Sciences

Financially supported by:
German Research Foundation
Cologne, 19th July 2010
CrissCross – DDC
Insights and Outlooks: A Retrospective View on
the CrissCross Project
Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC)

most widely used universal classification system

used by 200,000 libraries in over 135 countries

translated into more than 30 languages

since 2006 used by the German National Library (DNB) for subject
indexing

contains about 50,000 classes

structured by disciplines (e.g. religion, social sciences, technology, …)
Cologne, 19th July 2010
CrissCross – SWD
Insights and Outlooks: A Retrospective View on
the CrissCross Project
German subject headings authority file
Schlagwortnormdatei (SWD)

universal indexing language

contains 550,000 headings

categories: geographical names, topical headings, time, form, …

structured in 37 subject groups

types of relations: equivalent, hierarchical and associative
Cologne, 19th July 2010
CrissCross – Mapping Methods
Insights and Outlooks: A Retrospective View on
the CrissCross Project
Guidelines:
 One-to-many strategy
 Deep level mapping
 Degrees of Determinacy
Cologne, 19th July 2010
CrissCross – Mapping Methods
Insights and Outlooks: A Retrospective View on
the CrissCross Project
Unidirectional one-to-many strategy
Cardigans
391
Costume and personal appearance
646
Sewing, clothing, management of personal and
family life
687
Clothing and accessories
Cologne, 19th July 2010
CrissCross – Mapping Methods
Deep level mapping
Insights and Outlooks: A Retrospective View on
the CrissCross Project
breeding of
coffee
633.73 Coffee
631.52 Production of propagational
organisms
633.732 breeding of coffee
Cologne, 19th July 2010
CrissCross – Mapping Methods – Degrees of Determinacy
Insights and Outlooks: A Retrospective View on
the CrissCross Project
Degrees of Determinacy (D)

indicate conceptual congruency between SWD term and DDC class

4 degrees from full to partial coverage
Cologne, 19th July 2010
CrissCross – Mapping Methods – Degrees of Determinacy
Insights and Outlooks: A Retrospective View on
the CrissCross Project
Degrees of Determinacy (D)
Steppe
animals
=
591.744
D4:
full congruency
616.98022
Submarine medicine
Diving
medicine
D3:
high congruency
Cologne, 19th July 2010
CrissCross – Mapping Methods – Degrees of Determinacy
Insights and Outlooks: A Retrospective View on
the CrissCross Project
D2:
less coverage than D3
640.92
Home
economists
Housewife
D1:
slight congruency
668.542
Natural
perfumes
Lavender oil
Cologne, 19th July 2010
Insights and Outlooks: A Retrospective View on
the CrissCross Project
CrissCross – Mapping Process
1. descriptor
2. Identify scope
3. Determine
corresponding
DDC-classes
Cologne, 19th July 2010
CrissCross – Mapping Process
SWD
Insights and Outlooks: A Retrospective View on
the CrissCross Project
Hausfrau
UF Hausfrauen
BT Frau
DDC
D2
T1 — 08864
(EN = Homemakers, . . .)
D2
D2
Hausmänner
346.0163
Ehemann und Ehefrau
(EN = Husband and wife)
Relative Index Terms:
Ehemann und Ehefrau — Recht
RT Hausmann
D3
640.92
Hauswirtschafter, . . .
(EN = Home economists, . . .)
305.4364
Hausfrauen—soziale Gruppe
(EN = Housewives—social group)
Relative Index Terms:
Hausfrauen — soziale Gruppe
Cologne, 19th July 2010
Insights and Outlooks: A Retrospective View on
the CrissCross Project
CrissCross – Retrieval Scenarios
Retrieval Scenarios
Cologne, 19th July 2010
CrissCross – Retrieval Scenarios
Insights and Outlooks: A Retrospective View on
the CrissCross Project
CrissCross mappings can be used
 to enhance access to the DDC and to DDC-indexed documents
 to structure document sets (search result lists)
 to support conceptual exploration
Cologne, 19th July 2010
CrissCross – Retrieval Scenarios
Enhancing access to DDC classes and DDC-indexed documents
SWD
Insights and Outlooks: A Retrospective View on
the CrissCross Project
Polka-Mazurka
UF Polka-Mazur
DDC
D2
784.18844 Polkas
Relative Index Terms:
Polkas — Musik
BT Polka
793.33
Gesellschaftstänze (Rundtänze)
(EN = Ballroom dancing (Round dances))
Relative Index Terms:
Diskotanz
Foxtrott
Gesellschaftstänze
Jitterbug
Polkas
Rumbas
Rundtänze
Sambas
Tangos
Turniertänze
Walzer
Cologne, 19th July 2010
CrissCross – Structuring document sets by SWD headings
Insights and Outlooks: A Retrospective View on
the CrissCross Project
793.33 Gesellschaftstänze (Rundtänze) (EN = Ballroom dancing (Round dances))
DDC: 793.33 AND SWD: Gesellschaftstanz
DDC: 793.33 AND SWD: Polka-Mazurka
DDC: 793.33 AND SWD: Tango
[…]
DDC: 793.33 AND SWD: Bossa Nova
Cologne, 19th July 2010
CrissCross – Structuring document sets by DDC notations
Insights and Outlooks: A Retrospective View on
the CrissCross Project
SWD heading: Kabelbrücke (EN = cable-stayed bridge)
SWD: Kabelbrücke
AND DDC: 624.23 Suspension and cable-stayed bridges
(discipline: Engineering)
SWD: Kabelbrücke
AND DDC: 725.98 Bridges, tunnels, moats
(discipline: Architecture)
SWD: Kabelbrücke
AND DDC: 388.132 Bridges
(discipline: Transportation)
Cologne, 19th July 2010
CrissCross – Structuring heterogeneously indexed document sets (1 of 2)
Search entry: SWD heading Kabelbrücke (EN = cable-stayed bridge)
1a.
SWD heading: Kabelbrücke AND DDC: 624.23 (D3)
Insights and Outlooks: A Retrospective View on
the CrissCross Project
No results
1b.
SWD heading: Kabelbrücke AND DDC: 725.98 (D2)
SWD heading: Kabelbrücke AND DDC: 388.132 (D2)
No results
2.
SWD heading: Kabelbrücke
9 potentially relevant documents
-> 6 documents with DDC 624.5 or similar notations -> Relocated to 624.23 !
3a.
DDC: 624.23 (D3)
1 document, not about cable-stayed bridges in particular
OPAC: SWB Online Katalog, http://pollux.bsz-bw.de/DB=2.1/
Cologne, 19th July 2010
CrissCross – Structuring heterogeneously indexed document sets (2 of 2)
3b.
DDC: 725.98 (D2)
27 documents about bridges, not about cable-stayed bridges in particular
DDC: 388.132 (D2)
Insights and Outlooks: A Retrospective View on
the CrissCross Project
1 document, not about cable-stayed bridges but about a different kind of bridge
4.
Title keyword: Kabelbrücke resp. title keyword: Kabelbrücke*
(option: combine keyword search also with DDC search)
1 potentially relevant document when searching with truncation
5a.
DDC: 624.23* (D3)
3 potentially relevant documents, e.g. about the Brooklyn Bridge (DDC: 624.23097471)
5b.
DDC: 725.98* (D2)
DDC: 388.132* (D2)
countless documents, relevance not scrutinized
6.
SWD heading: “Sevilla / Puente del Alamillo” (NT of Kabelbrücke)
1 potentially relevant document
The whole process (1-5) could be repeated for Narrower and Related Terms
OPAC: SWB Online Katalog, http://pollux.bsz-bw.de/DB=2.1/
Cologne, 19th July 2010
CrissCross – Conceptual Exploration
Conceptual knowledge exploration based on CrissCross
Insights and Outlooks: A Retrospective View on
the CrissCross Project
by utilization of
CrissCross mappings
+
DDC
Hierarchical relationships
Equivalence relationships
Associative relationships
SWD
Cologne, 19th July 2010
CrissCross – Conceptual exploration based on CrissCross mappings
Insights and Outlooks: A Retrospective View on
the CrissCross Project
650.1 Personal success in business
302.14 Social participation
Erfolg
(success)
158 Applied psychology
131 Parapsychological and occult methods for
achieving well-being, happiness, success
Cologne, 19th July 2010
CrissCross – Conceptual exploration based on CrissCross mappings
Function:
Show all headings mapped to DDC 650.1
Insights and Outlooks: A Retrospective View on
the CrissCross Project
650.1
D3: Berufserfolg (success in business)
Erfolg (success)
D2: Berufsanfänger (young professionals)
Berufslaufbahn (job history)
Eigenwerbung (self-promotion)
Karriere (carreer)
Mikropolitik (micropolitics)
Misserfolg (failure)
D1: Arbeitsorganisation (work organization)
Arbeitswelt (working world)
Erfolgsstreben (ambition to succeed)
Geschäftssinn (business sense)
Selbstmanagement (self-management)
Cologne, 19th July 2010
CrissCross – Conceptual exploration based on CrissCross mappings
Function:
Show all headings mapped to DDC 302.14
Insights and Outlooks: A Retrospective View on
the CrissCross Project
302.14
D3: Erfolg (success)
Soziale Anerkennung (social recognition)
Soziale Anpassung (social adaptation)
Sozialkompetenz (soft skills)
D2: Beteiligung (participation)
Konfliktfähigkeit (conflict ability)
Kooperatives Verhalten (cooperative behavior)
Leistungsverhalten (performance)
Misserfolg (failure)
Nichtkooperatives Verhalten (non-cooperative behavior)
Wettbewerbsverhalten (competitive behavior)
D1: Erfolgsangst (fear of success)
Erfolgsstreben (ambition to succeed)
Psychosoziale Entwicklung (psycho-social development)
Cologne, 19th July 2010
Insights and Outlooks: A Retrospective View on
the CrissCross Project
CrissCross – Conceptual exploration based on CrissCross mappings
CrissCross mappings
(SWD-DDC mappings)
in DDC class
Cologne, 19th July 2010
Insights and Outlooks: A Retrospective View on
the CrissCross Project
CrissCross – A priori conceptual relations in SWD and DDC
DDC
Hierarchical relationships
Equivalence relationships
Associative relationships
SWD
Cologne, 19th July 2010
CrissCross – A priori conceptual relations in SWD and DDC
A priori conceptual relations in the SWD (German Subject Headings Authority
File):
Insights and Outlooks: A Retrospective View on
the CrissCross Project
Broader terms (BT)
Narrower terms (NT)
Related terms (RT)
Used for (UF)
Erfolg (success)
NT
NT
NT
Berufserfolg (success in business)
Führungserfolg (leadership success)
Unternehmenserfolg
(enterprise success)
NT
Werbeerfolg (advertising success)
RT
Misserfolg (failure)
Cologne, 19th July 2010
CrissCross – A priori conceptual relations in SWD and DDC
Insights and Outlooks: A Retrospective View on
the CrissCross Project
A priori conceptual relations in the DDC:
•
Hierarchical relationships
• Notational hierarchy
• Structural hierarchy
• Polyhierarchical relationships
•
Equivalence relationship
•
Associative relationships
 Relative Index terms
Cologne, 19th July 2010
CrissCross – A priori conceptual relations in SWD and DDC
A priori conceptual relations in the DDC:
Notational
hierarchy
Equivalence
relationship
Associative
relationship
Relative Index entries
(include topics from
including note)
Polyhierarchical relationship
 650.1 Class here
interdisciplinary works on
success
Cologne, 19th July 2010
CrissCross – A priori conceptual relations in SWD and DDC
Erfolg als Führungskraft
Betriebswirtschaft
Führungserfolg
Karriere
Geschäftssinn
Erfolg — angewandte Psychologie
Wettbewerb (Sozialer)
Werbeerfolg
158
158.7
Erfolg — Sozialpsychologie
Selbstmanagement
650.1
Zielvorstellung
Berufserfolg
658.409
650
Kreative Leistung — beruflicher Erfolg
Wettbewerbsverhalten
Misserfolg
Erfolg
(success)
302.14
Soziale Anpassung
Arbeitspsychologie
Kooperation — Sozialpsychologie
Beliebtheit
Lebenskunst
Kooperation
Glück
Durchsetzungsvermögen
131
Erfolgsstreben
Erfolg — Parapsychologie
Leistungsverhalten
Soziale Anerkennung
Soziale Kompetenzen
302
Sozialpsychologie
Soziale Interaktion
Cologne, 19th July 2010
THANK YOU
FOR
Insights and Outlooks: A Retrospective View on
the CrissCross Project
YOUR
CrissCross Team Cologne
ATTENTION
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
team leader
[email protected]
Cologne, 19th July 2010

Jacobs, Jan-Helge / Mengel, Tina / Müller, Katrin