Final Project: Quantifying the Eccentric English Language Ellen Drummonds Quantitative Reasoning 003 Mr. Dale Nelson 10 July 2012 Purpose of Research ► Future intent of becoming the Chief Editor of a successful publishing company (which I may eventually own) Drive toward teaching the subtle nuances of the English language Inspired interest in languages and cultures Objects of Comparison German vs. English pronouns Latin vs. English tenses Conclusion regarding the overall scheme of our ever-changing and –acclimating lingo and its future Primary Companion Source for Reflective Poem Bill Bryson’s 1990 piece, The Mother Tongue: English and How It Got That Way German Pronouns Personal Pronouns in German Singular Direct Object Pronouns in German Singular I ich you (familiar) du me mich you (formal) Sie you (familiar) dich he, she, it er, sie, es you (formal) Sie him, her, it ihn, sie, es Plural Plural we wir you (familiar) ihr us uns you (formal) Sie you (familiar) euch they sie you (formal) Sie them sie http://german.speak7.com/ german_pronouns.htm German Pronouns, continued (and there are even more that need not be shown) Indirect Object Pronouns in German Singular Possessive Pronouns in German Singular to me mir to you (familiar) dir mine mein/e to you (familiar) Ihnen yours mein/e yours (formal) Ihr/e his, hers, its sein/e to him, to her, to it ihm, ihr, ihm Plural to us uns to you (familiar) euch to you (formal) Ihnen to them ihnen http://german.speak7.com/german_ pronouns.htm Plural our unser/e yours (familiar) eur/e yours (formal) theirs Ihr/e ihr/e Number of German vs. English Pronouns (not so different as we think) German Pronouns (Total) Approximately 50, contained in the following: direct and indirect pronouns, as well as the below forms English Pronouns (Total) Approximately 50, contained in the following: personal, demonstrative, possessive, interrogative, reflexive, reciprocal, indefinite, and relative Basic Forms of Pronouns in Each Language 12 10 8 German English 6 4 2 0 Personal Possessive Reflexive Interrogative Thanks to http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/pronouns-personal.htm for data on types and amounts of English pronouns Latin Tenses Example: the infinitive verb “to walk” – Present (ambulo) – Imperfect (ambulabam) – Perfect (ambulavi) – Pluperfect (ambulaveram) – Future (ambulabo) – Future Perfect (ambulavero) http://www.brighthub.com/education/languages/articles/21343.aspx Fallacy of Appeal to Ignorance The Latin language is proven dead, due to the fact that we English-speakers rarely utilize its affixes in our daily speech. – The English words “ambulance” (an emergency vehicle carrying injured persons to a hospital) and “ambulate” (“to walk”) are both derived from old Latin. The prefix “ambi-” signifies “both”—as in, “ambivalent” or “ambidextrous”. English Tenses for the Infinitive http://teacherjoe.us/ Verb “to walk” Verbs.html Type of Tense Simple Past Tenses “Walked” Continuous “Was walking” Perfect “Had walked” Perfect “Had been Continuous walking” Present Tenses “Walk” Future Tenses “Will walk” “Am walking” “Have walked” “Have been walking” “Will be walking” “Will have walked” “Will have been walking” List of Commonly Used Latin Words/Phrases Law: de facto bona fide de jure habeas corpus status quo prima facie cui bono ex post facto nolo contendere pro bono http://center.dordt.edu/266.5 43units/Roman%20Empire/W orksheets/LAW2.htm List of Commonly Used Latin Words/Phrases, continued Medicine (suffix –ology or –ics means “the study of”): anesthesiology cardiology dermatology audiology pediatrics neurology orthopedics radiology urology geriatrics List of Commonly Used Latin Words/Phrases, continued Music: Other: alto piano forte tenor soprano quid pro quo gratis et cetera (etc.) persona non grata per capita Probability of Encountering Common Latin in Daily Speech At least 1 in 50, depending on individual circumstances – If in law school, it is estimated that one would come across a Latin word or phrase at least 20-30 times in one day. – If in medical school, it is estimated that one would come across a Latin word or phrase at least 10-20 times in one day. – If in music school, it is estimated that one would come across a Latin word or phrase at least 15 times in one day (especially with choral pieces). – If involved in another situation, it is estimated that one would come across a Latin word or phrase when employing effective means of conveying ideas, such as “et cetera” (which means, “and so on”), and “quid pro quo” (which means, “returning of favor”).