Final Project:
Quantifying the Eccentric
English Language
Ellen Drummonds
Quantitative Reasoning 003
Mr. Dale Nelson
10 July 2012
Purpose of Research
► Future
intent of becoming the Chief Editor
of a successful publishing company (which I
may eventually own)
 Drive toward teaching the subtle nuances of the
English language
 Inspired interest in languages and cultures
Objects of Comparison
 German vs. English pronouns
 Latin vs. English tenses
 Conclusion regarding the overall scheme
of our ever-changing and –acclimating
lingo and its future
Primary Companion Source
for Reflective Poem
 Bill Bryson’s 1990 piece, The Mother
Tongue: English and How It Got That
Way
German Pronouns
Personal Pronouns in German
Singular
Direct Object Pronouns in
German
Singular
I
ich
you (familiar)
du
me
mich
you (formal)
Sie
you (familiar)
dich
he, she, it
er, sie, es
you (formal)
Sie
him, her, it
ihn, sie, es
Plural
Plural
we
wir
you (familiar)
ihr
us
uns
you (formal)
Sie
you (familiar)
euch
they
sie
you (formal)
Sie
them
sie
http://german.speak7.com/
german_pronouns.htm
German Pronouns, continued (and there
are even more that need not be shown)
Indirect Object Pronouns in
German
Singular
Possessive Pronouns in German
Singular
to me
mir
to you (familiar)
dir
mine
mein/e
to you (familiar)
Ihnen
yours
mein/e
yours (formal)
Ihr/e
his, hers, its
sein/e
to him, to her, to
it
ihm, ihr, ihm
Plural
to us
uns
to you (familiar)
euch
to you (formal)
Ihnen
to them
ihnen
http://german.speak7.com/german_
pronouns.htm
Plural
our
unser/e
yours (familiar)
eur/e
yours (formal)
theirs
Ihr/e
ihr/e
Number of German vs. English Pronouns
(not so different as we think)
German Pronouns (Total)
Approximately 50, contained
in the following: direct and
indirect pronouns, as well as
the below forms
English Pronouns (Total)
Approximately 50, contained
in the following: personal,
demonstrative, possessive,
interrogative, reflexive,
reciprocal, indefinite, and
relative
Basic Forms of Pronouns in Each
Language
12
10
8
German
English
6
4
2
0
Personal
Possessive
Reflexive
Interrogative
Thanks to http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/pronouns-personal.htm
for data on types and amounts of English pronouns
Latin Tenses

Example: the infinitive verb “to walk”
– Present (ambulo)
– Imperfect (ambulabam)
– Perfect (ambulavi)
– Pluperfect (ambulaveram)
– Future (ambulabo)
– Future Perfect (ambulavero)
http://www.brighthub.com/education/languages/articles/21343.aspx
Fallacy of Appeal to Ignorance

The Latin language is proven dead, due to
the fact that we English-speakers rarely
utilize its affixes in our daily speech.
– The English words “ambulance” (an emergency
vehicle carrying injured persons to a hospital) and
“ambulate” (“to walk”) are both derived from old
Latin. The prefix “ambi-” signifies “both”—as in,
“ambivalent” or “ambidextrous”.
English Tenses for the Infinitive
http://teacherjoe.us/
Verb
“to
walk”
Verbs.html
Type of
Tense
Simple
Past
Tenses
“Walked”
Continuous “Was
walking”
Perfect
“Had
walked”
Perfect
“Had been
Continuous walking”
Present
Tenses
“Walk”
Future
Tenses
“Will walk”
“Am
walking”
“Have
walked”
“Have been
walking”
“Will be
walking”
“Will have
walked”
“Will have
been
walking”

List of Commonly Used Latin
Words/Phrases
Law:
de facto
bona fide
de jure
habeas corpus
status quo
prima facie
cui bono
ex post facto
nolo contendere
pro bono
http://center.dordt.edu/266.5
43units/Roman%20Empire/W
orksheets/LAW2.htm
List of Commonly Used Latin
Words/Phrases, continued

Medicine (suffix –ology or –ics means “the
study of”):
anesthesiology
cardiology
dermatology
audiology
pediatrics
neurology
orthopedics
radiology
urology
geriatrics
List of Commonly Used Latin
Words/Phrases, continued

Music:

Other:
alto
piano
forte
tenor
soprano
quid pro quo
gratis
et cetera (etc.)
persona non grata
per capita
Probability of Encountering
Common Latin in Daily Speech

At least 1 in 50, depending on individual circumstances
– If in law school, it is estimated that one would come across a
Latin word or phrase at least 20-30 times in one day.
– If in medical school, it is estimated that one would come across
a Latin word or phrase at least 10-20 times in one day.
– If in music school, it is estimated that one would come across a
Latin word or phrase at least 15 times in one day (especially
with choral pieces).
– If involved in another situation, it is estimated that one would
come across a Latin word or phrase when employing effective
means of conveying ideas, such as “et cetera” (which means,
“and so on”), and “quid pro quo” (which means, “returning of
favor”).

File - Ellen Marie Drummonds` ePortfolio