Effects of Earthquakes (1)
• Primary effects
 Ground shaking, tilting, and ground rupture
 Loss of life and collapse of infrastructure
 Landslides, liquefaction, and tsunamis
• Secondary effects
 Fires, floods, and diseases
Effects of Earthquakes (2)
• Depending upon the frequency of seismic waves
 Body waves (P and S) having higher frequency
than surface waves
 High frequency waves posing more threats on
low structures
 Low frequency waves posing more impact on tall
structures
 High frequency waves attenuated faster over
distance, higher buildings far away from the
epicenter can be damaged
Surface displacement along strike-slip fault: 2
Stanford
University,
Geology Quad,
1906 Earthquake
Fault rupture
ChiChi, Taiwan, 1999
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Fotos from
geot.civil.metro-u.ac.jp/
archives/eq/99taiwan/
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Ground Amplification
Liquefaction
Ismitz, turkey, 1999
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Nijgata earthquake, 1964 Ml7.5
Fotos from USGS web site
Liquefaction
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Chichi, 1999
Fotos from geot.civil.metro-u.ac.jp/
archives/eq/99taiwan/
Landslides
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Chichi earthquake 1999
Kingston and Port Royal Jamaica
1692
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Faults in San
Francisco
Bay Area
Damage to San Francisco from 1989 Loma
Prieta Earthquake
Damage to Bay Bridge from 1989 Loma Prieta
Earthquake
Faults in Los Angeles
Damage from 1994 Northridge, CA earthquake
Failure of Van Norman Dam from 1971
San Fernando Earthquake
Failure of freeway overpasses during
1971 San Fernando Earthquake

Presentation2 Earthquakes