KNOWLEDGE
MANAGEMENT
Division: Management
Module: Special Forms of
Management
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Knowledge Management
The students are introduced to knowledge as a key resource for
organizations with properties significantly different to "classical resources"
such as capital or labor. They identify the main drivers of Intellectual
Capital and get an idea about strengths and weaknesses of Intellectual
Capital in their organizations. Participants learn about the prioritization
and systematic development of Intellectual Capital, they are introduced to
selected methods and instruments and apply them on business situations.
 Classification and strategic evaluation of knowledge and Intellectual
Capital
 Methods and instruments for knowledge management
 Prioritization and implementation of knowledge management
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
At the end of this course you
should be able to…
 … discuss the differences between intangible and tangible resources
 … apply ideas of knowledge management strategies
 … and selected methods to manage knowledge (instruments)
 … differentiate strategic relevant drivers of Intellectual Capital
 … apply a toolbox to document, assess and manage Intellectual Capital
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Assessment methods and criteria
First attempt: learning checks at the end of each of the four learning units.
Knowledge management is included in the final grade with 50% weight.
Second attempt: Oral examination over the entire syllabus. Knowledge
management is included in the final grade with 50% weight.
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Time table / content structure
Part 1
Part 2
break
Management 2.0
Basic Concepts
Of Knowledge KM methods in
Management
organizations




Introduction

Attributes of
knowledge

Model for KM
Strategies for KM 



Measuring IC
(quick check)

The Future of
Management
Overview to references
and players in KM
Summary of KM methods
Exercise: present the 
essentials of one KM
instrument
Part 4
Understand
Intellectual
the impact
Capital
of knowledge
Statements as
strategic KM
driving
Instrument
change
Part 3
Analyses of Intellectual 
Capital
Introduction to Intellectual
Capital Reporting
Application 
first steps with the ICtoolbox
Individual exercise:

definition of assessment
questions

Test
Interpretation of QQS
portfolio
Impact of Intellectual
Capital? Causes and effects
Modeling the impact of
change measures (case
study)
Implementation of
Knowledge Management
Summary
Sam
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Objective of this lecture
• Students develop some ideas about the concepts of “Knowledge",
“Intangible Assets", and “Intellectual Capital“.
• Students understand essential terminology and concepts of
knowledge management and are able to relate them to other
management fundamentals.
• We learn to apply the instrument of Intellectual Capital Reporting
(toolbox) and use it to better understand some of challenges of
knowledge management.
• A conceptual basic model provides the framework for our
discussions. Additional references and some case studies support
group interaction and reflection.
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Grading
• individual tests
– comprehension of KM
methods /
– video comprehension
Reflection / Summary
Hamel (participation)
– IC test (participation)
– multiple choice test
(participation)
• teamwork
– presentation of one
method of knowledge
management
(participation)
– presentation of an
Intellectual Capital
Statement as a case
study (participation)
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Dr. Manfred Bornemann
•
•
•
•
Intangible Assets Consulting
GmbH since 1996
Implementation of IC reports in
the German speaking Market
Teaching assignments at several
(applied) universities
Member in the board of editors
– International Journal for
Intellectual Capital Management
– Knowledge Management
Research & Practice
– The Learning Organization
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
The Story of Light
•
•
•
•
•
To produce light for one candle for one hour, prehistoric
man had to invest about an hour to collect wood or
create torches and ignite them.
That was a considerable effort and thus limited activity to
the natural rhythm of day and night. Several steps of
innovation from candles to oil lamps, using various wicks,
allowed for the improvement of efficiency by not only
providing more and better-quality light (in terms of candles),
but also less labor and less unpleasant side effects (smoke,
grime, risk of injury because of fire, etc.).
According to Nordhaus (1998) one hour of labor today
produces 350,000 times more light than a Babylonian man
could consume with the same effort.
Today, we create so much light at such a low cost that now
the opposite of scarcity is the problem: light pollution in
urban and densely populated areas with its negative effects
on our well-being. Thanks to human creativity and effort, an
awkward problem that consumed relevant resources was
resolved. Yes, it took a very long time, because rates of
innovation were extremely low for most of the period.
But innovation rates accelerated tremendously from
0.003% per year from the Stone Age to the Middle Ages
to 1% until roughly a century ago and 3% since then.
http://www.ajoma.de/html/dark_sky.html
Source: http://cowles.econ.yale.edu/P/cp/p09b/p0957.pdf
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
What EXACTLY supports
OUR performance?
enterprises as
black box
• What is
knowledge?
• What attributes has
knowledge?
• What is the impact
of knowledge?
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
team work of employees
good relations to
suppliers and partners
three star chef
first grade supplies
outstanding recipes
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
What exactly supports our performance?
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Hard questions ???
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
If Intangibles are our competitive advantage … how exactly do they look
like?
What is the status quo of intangibles in our eco system?
What is the source of intangibles? How are they developed systematically?
What is the impact of intangibles? Where do they have effects (industry,
governmental, social, science)?
How could we commercialize intangibles in SME structures in the medium
technology level (not: high tech sectors)?
How does this work right now – and how could it work? What are limiting
and supporting drivers?
Which management instruments and management philosophies are
beneficial?
What are the implications for management from the perspective of politics
and other stakeholders in these systems?
How would a task force be organized to first clarify these questions, to
provide answers and then to communicate them?
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Hard questions in SMEs
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Which knowledge assets are available (resource based approach) – and what could
we do with them? (Alternative: what would we like to accomplish – and what would it
take to do so?)
How can we grasp Intangibles? (examples: what is the difference between Microsoft
and Apple or Oracle and SAP or Sturm and Rapid; what is the difference between a
job applicant from university/FH or Harvard or BFI?
What are our Value Propositions?
How can we balance a group and achieve homogeneity? (==> concept of people /
idea of men)
What prerequisites need to be accomplished to prevent erosion of competitive
advantages but grow them? (==> corporate values / culture / visions)
How can we transfer Intangibles? How to protect Intangibles?
What are the essential business models to utilized Intangibles?
==> requirements:
• differences in perception … (based upon prior knowledge)
• articulation and communicating perceptions
• definition of categories / taxonomies to support connectivity
• pattern recognition – complexity – interdisciplinary approaches
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Knowledge in a narrow and
wide sense
Praxishandbuch Wissensmanagement
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Knowledge as a Resource
MONEY / tangible assets
Intangibles
• Increasing scale effects
• decreasing scale effects
• Transparent financial
markets
• Seller and buyer do not have
the same level of information by
definition.
• Money can be spent only
once (it is scarce)
• Intangibles are not scarce
(but TIME to learn is)
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Justification and legitimation
• We discuss knowledge management because Knowledge and
Intellectual Capital have different attributes than tangible or
financial assets.
• We can share knowledge – an sharing (partially) increases the value
of knowledge. At the same time, we still keep our knowledge.
• Intangibles are easy to copy or to reproduce (software, music, pdfdocuments).
• Parallel, we face severe barriers (prior knowledge) and lock-ineffects (language, operating systems) that prevent or delay change.
• When used effectively, knowledge supports scale effects (e.g.
technology, medical knowledge, consulting). Alternatively, mistakes
in handling knowledge lead to full loss of competitive advantages
(e.g. solar technology).
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Objectives of KM
Short term
• Avoid errors? Identify new strategies?
• Improvement of processes / products?
Long term
• Better accomplishment of strategic objectives!
• Improvement of productivity (input/output)!
• Better understanding of our own core competencies
(who? why? what? how? how better?
• Establishment of a Learning Organization
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Management?!
Karl Weick
source: http://faculty.fuqua.duke.edu/~charlesw/s591/Bocconi-Duke/Papers/new_C11/Cartographic%20Myths%20in%20Organizations.pdf
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Basic model of KM
Source: Praxishandbuch Wissensmanagement
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Knowledge is embedded in
processes
Source: Praxishandbuch Wissensmanagement
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
A staircase model of knowledge
competitive
advantage
competency
act
applying
knowledge
information
data
+ uniqueness
+ act “correct”
+ strategic intent
+ focus of application
+ context (experiences, expectations)
symbols
+ meaning
+ syntax
Source: North, K. (1999): Wissensbasierte Unternehmensführung: Wertschöpfung durch Wissen. 2. Aufl., Wiesbaden: Gabler.
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
What is knowledge ?
explicit knowledge
„We know
more …
than we can
tell“
Polanyi 1966
implicit
knowledge
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Different types of knowledge
knowledge
explicit
stored stable
over time
implicit
hard to share,
depending on
action and person
private
collective
documented
private
processes, organidocuments and
zational structures,
competencies
data, other docs
individual
experiences,
intuition, ability
to think in
abstract terms
established shared
practices, values,
un-codified rituals
and norms
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
The SEKI model
Source: I. Nonaka & H. Takeuchi, The Knowledge Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create
the Dynamics of Innovation (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995).
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Feedback loop of strategic
Knowledge Management
Source: Praxishandbuch Wissensmanagement
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Which knowledge strategy to apply?
Codification
Personalization
Relative importance for the business
Tables
Written Documents
Hypertext
Facts
Creative
Abilities
Process- and System models
applied systems
Knowledge Bases Systems
Difficulty
of the task
Deliver Facts - Systematize - Correlate - Analyze - Plan - Arrange - Design Concept
Siemens, 1998
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Best practice transfer with
personalization and codification
Praxishandbuch Wissensmanagement
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
pro and con for personalization and
codification strategy
• Permanently available,
• Costly and difficult
codification process
• Useful for frequent reuse
• Danger of outdated
• Simple and fast
knowledge base
codification
transferability
• Lacking context
• Diverging mental models
make utilization difficult
• Knowledge remains
updated
• Sometimes hard to
• Complexity of knowledge
identify ideal expert
transfer is flexible
• Experts might not be
• Potential for learning and
available
innovation for each
transfer
personalization • Inter-personal dislikes
Praxishandbuch Wissensmanagement
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Examples form consulting
Source: Hansen / Nohira, HBS, 1999
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Knowledge activities based on
Probst et al.
Praxishandbuch Wissensmanagement
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Knowledge activities by Bergeron
Bergeron, Bryan: Essentials of Knowledge Management, Wiley 2003
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Time table / content structure
Part 1
Part 2
break
Management 2.0
Basic Concepts
Of Knowledge KM methods in
Management
organizations




Introduction

Attributes of
knowledge

Model for KM
Strategies for KM 



Measuring IC
(quick check)

The Future of
Management
Overview to references
and players in KM
Summary of KM methods
Exercise: present the 
essentials of one KM
instrument
Part 4
Understand
Intellectual
the impact
Capital
of knowledge
Statements as
strategic KM
driving
Instrument
change
Part 3
Analyses of Intellectual 
Capital
Introduction to Intellectual
Capital Reporting
Application 
first steps with the ICtoolbox
Individual exercise:

definition of assessment
questions

Test
Interpretation of QQS
portfolio
Impact of Intellectual
Capital? Causes and effects
Modeling the impact of
change measures (case
study)
Implementation of
Knowledge Management
Summary
Sam
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Flash IC assessment
Die 3 Minuten Wissensbilanz - Fragebogen zum Intellektuellen Kapital
Ziel: erster Einstieg zur Abschätzung der Bedeutung und der aktuellen Ausprägung
von Intellektuellem Kapital
HK1
HK2
HK3
HK4
SK1
SK2
SK3
SK4
SK5
SK6
BK1
BK2
BK3
BK4
BK5
Bedeutung
Ausprägung
Wie wichtig?
0-10
Wie gut?
0-10
Fachkompetenz
Soziale Kompetenz
Führungskompetenz
Mitarbeitermotivation
Interne Kooperation / Wissenstransfer
Prozess- und Verfahrensinnovation
Produktinnovation
Führungsinstrumente
IT & explizites Wissen
Unternehmenskultur
Kundenbeziehungen
Lieferantenbeziehungen
Beziehungen zu Kapitalgebern
Bez. zu Kooperationspartnern
Bez. zur Öffentlichkeit
Potentialportfolio
handeln
stabilisieren
Bedeutung
Faktor
Kein
Handlungsbedarf
analyisieren
Ausprägung
Bedeutung: Wie wichtig ist dieser Faktor Ihrer Meinung nach, um Ihre
Unternehmensziele zu erreichen? 10 wäre sehr wichtig, null unwichtig
Ausprägung: Wie gut ist dieser Faktor Ihrer Meinung nach in Ihrer Firma
ausgeprägt? 10 wäre sehr gut und ausreichend um Ihre Ziele zu erreichen.
www.wissensbilanz-schnelltest.de
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Useful material for KM
•
Prowis is a collection of knowledge management instruments with several examples
provided by the German BMWI
http://www.prowis.net/prowis/sites/default/files/pdf/Literatur/Leitfaden/prowis_leitfaden
_fraunhofer_web.pdf
•
EU-guideline for knowledge management
ftp://cenftp1.cenorm.be/PUBLIC/CWAs/e-Europe/KM/German-text-KM-CWAguide.pdf
•
GfWM - Landkarte zu Wissensmanagement
http://gfwm-online.de/files/GfWM-Wissenslandkarte.pdf
•
Studie zum Wissensmanagement (Pawlowsky et al)
http://www.bmwi.de/BMWi/Redaktion/PDF/S-T/studiewissenmanagen,property=pdf,bereich=bmwi2012,sprache=de,rwb=true.pdf
•
D-A-CH Glossar Wissensmanagement
http://wm-wiki.wikispaces.com/file/view/D-A-CH_Wissensmanagement_Glossar_v11.pdf
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Associations active in KM
• Plattform Wissensmanagement
www.pwm.at
• Wissensmanagement Forum
www.wm-forum.org
• Gesellschaft für Wissensmanagement
www.gfwm.de
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
time table / content structure
Part 1
Part 2
break
Management 2.0
Basic Concepts
Of Knowledge KM methods in
Management
organizations




Introduction

Attributes of
knowledge

Model for KM
Strategies for KM 



Measuring IC
(quick check)

The Future of
Management
Overview to references
and players in KM
Summary of KM methods
Exercise: present the 
essentials of one KM
instrument
Part 4
Understand
Intellectual
the impact
Capital
of knowledge
Statements as
strategic KM
driving
Instrument
change
Part 3
Analyses of Intellectual 
Capital
Introduction to Intellectual
Capital Reporting
Application 
first steps with the ICtoolbox
Individual exercise:

definition of assessment
questions

Test
Interpretation of QQS
portfolio
Impact of Intellectual
Capital? Causes and effects
Modeling the impact of
change measures (case
study)
Implementation of
Knowledge Management
Summary
Sam
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
some more quotes
• In the old economy, the challenge for management was
to make product. Now the challenge for management is
to make sense. (John S. Brown)
• Treat people as if they were what they ought to be and
you help them become what they are capable of
becoming. (W. Goethe)
• Before you become too entranced with gorgeous
gadgets and mesmerizing video displays, let me remind
you that information is not knowledge, knowledge is not
wisdom, and wisdom is not foresight. Each grows out of
the other, and we need them all. (Arthur C. Clark)
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
exercise
• Please extract the main ideas of the
following video link.
• After watching the video, you have 5
minutes for a brief summary and personal
comment.
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K3-_IY66tpI
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Reflection Hamel
• What are the main points of Hamel?
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Routine processes and
knowledge intensive processes
Bergeron, Bryan: Essentials of Knowledge Management, Wiley 2003
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Bridging the knowledge gap
Bergeron, Bryan: Essentials of Knowledge Management, Wiley 2003
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Examples of KM instruments
Praxishandbuch Wissensmanagement
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
example of the status quo of
Intellectual Capital in an SME
Streuung Ausprägung
10
Humankapital
9
Beziehungskapital
10
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
0
0
n
Minimum
zu
Ka
pi
ta
hu
ng
e
ie
nb
ez
ra
nt
e
zu
rK
en
W
ie
Li
eh
un
g
en
is
se
n
te
s
en
be
z
ef
e
Be
zi
ns
te
Ku
nd
ex
p
ch
ni
k
&
hr
un
g
si
liz
ite
ns
t
ru
m
en
at
io
n
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Pr
od
uk
tin
no
v
nn
ov
a
tio
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Ve
rfa
hr
en
si
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ns
f
io
nd
oz
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su
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er
at
io
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ita
W
rb
e
is
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at
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om
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m
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io
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Pr
Be
zi
In
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Ko
What exactly is the meaning of these drivers?
What exactly is the reference or scale?
Why is the deviation of scoring in our team so substantial?
In
fo
te
n
al
e
So
zi
Average
oo
lg
Be
eb
pe
zi
er
r
at
eh
n
io
un
ns
ge
pa
n
rtn
zu
er
rÖ
n
ffe
nt
lic
hk
ei
t
5
hu
ng
en
5
n
6
n
7
6
te
nz
7
z
8
•
•
•
Maximum
9
8
ch
ko
m
pe
Fa
Strukturkapital
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Primary field of intervention in
Knowledge Management
internal COMMUNICATION
and knowledge transfer
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Challenges for knowledge
transfer
tacit
5
8
6
3
explicit
Type of knowledge
7
1
4
2
local
global
context
Bornemann, based on: Nancy Dixon: Common Knowledge, HBSP, 2000
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Methods
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Chat Forum; blackboards, checklist
Intranet, manuals
local Project archive,
global Project archive incl. maintenance
Mentoring, personal coaching, team meeting - usually
no top down implementation possible; awareness
creation
6. corporate meetings, lessons learned workshops, C.U.,
Yellow pages, staff rotation, ???
7. little intervention! Allow for time budget (subsidiary)
8. story telling, personnel rotation
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Which measures are supported?
Where is demand for more?
explicit methods
8
1) existing, room for improvement
2) quite well implemented
5
6
3
explizit
Art des Wissens
tacit
7
1
methods:
4
2
local
global
3) only partially available
4) Not available – implementation is currently
not yet discussed
implicit methods
Kontext
1Chat Forum; blackboards, checklist
2 Intranet, manuals
3 local Project archive,
4 global Project archive incl. maintenance
5) yes – still room for improvement
6) Not yet, but already planned as learning
platform
5 Mentoring, personal coaching, team meeting - usually no top
down implementation possible; awareness creation
7) yes
6 corporate meetings, lessons learned workshops, C.U., Yellow
pages, staff rotation, ???
8) Not really, partially covered from Robert
7 little intervention! Allow for time budget (subsidiary)
8 story telling, personnel rotation
Caution: case - dependent!!!
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Some more methods of
Knowledge Management
Quelle: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Personalführung e.V. 2002.
Wissensmanagement im 21. Jahrhundert
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Methods for “Business Process
oriented KM”
Praxishandbuch Wissensmanagement
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Tools for “Business Process
oriented KM”
Praxishandbuch Wissensmanagement
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Group exercise
• Please use all available source to learn about
these methods and instruments for KM.
–
–
–
–
Prowis Shop
EU-guideline for KM
Glossary of GfWM
Wikipedia – „knowledge management“
• Which of them are of most interest for you?
Please select one and provide a short
presentation – use the template in the next slide
– objective/ focus of application
– implementation
– cost / benefits
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Method:
• objective/ focus of application
• implementation
• cost / benefits
names of team members
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Reflection of methods
Which method is most reasonable for US???
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Diagnosis and codification
Source: Internet 2003 – Links dead
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Time table / content structure
Part 1
Part 2
break
Management 2.0
Basic Concepts
Of Knowledge KM methods in
Management
organizations




Introduction

Attributes of
knowledge

Model for KM
Strategies for KM 



Measuring IC
(quick check)

The Future of
Management
Overview to references
and players in KM
Summary of KM methods
Exercise: present the 
essentials of one KM
instrument
Part 4
Understand
Intellectual
the impact
Capital
of knowledge
Statements as
strategic KM
driving
Instrument
change
Part 3
Analyses of Intellectual 
Capital
Introduction to Intellectual
Capital Reporting
Application 
first steps with the ICtoolbox
Individual exercise:

definition of assessment
questions

Test
Interpretation of QQS
portfolio
Impact of Intellectual
Capital? Causes and effects
Modeling the impact of
change measures (case
study)
Implementation of
Knowledge Management
Summary
Sam
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Methods to assess Knowledge
and Intangible Assets
Praxishandbuch Wissensmanagement
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Measuring knowledge with
„Wissensbilanz – made in
Germany“
please install this toolbox
http://www.akwissensbilanz.org/Toolbox/WB-TB2.zip
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
What is an Intellectual
Capital Statement ?
D
 An Intellectual Capital Statement is an
instrument to document and report the
development of Intellectual Capital of an
organization.
 It relates corporate objectives, business
processes and Intellectual Capital with
business performance of an organization
Quelle:
and takes advantage of indicators.
Leitfaden Wissensbilanz – Made in
Germany.
Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und
Arbeit in Zusammenarbeit mit dem
Arbeitskreis Wissensbilanz.
www.akwissensbilanz.org
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Focus of an
Intellectual Capital Statement
Praxishandbuch Wissensmanagement
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Model for Intellectual Capital
Statements by AKWB
Business Environment
(opportunities & risks)
Organization
Intellectual Capital
Human
Capital
initialsituation
vision
and
objectives
business
strategy actions
knowledge-
Structural
Capital
Relational
Capital
Financial &.
tangible
Capital
Business Processes
external
impact
business
performance
Knowledge processes
Source: www.akwissensbilanz.org
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Differentiation of
Intellectual Capital
Praxishandbuch Wissensmanagement
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
typical drivers of IC
Indicators
Humankapital
2002
Anzahl der M A gesam t
62,3
2003
2004
Bewertung
Ziel
(Stand: 31. 8.)
52,1
53


21
21


8
8


4
4

4
4
3

2,6
3,3
1,9


25,7%


Mitarbeiterausbildung
Akadem iker
Fachkräfte
Ungelernte Arbeits kräfte
(Studium ohne Abs chluss )
Aus zubildende
Mitarbeiterweiterbildung
Weiterbildungs tage pro
Mitarbeiter
Human Capital
• Employee qualifications
• Management competencies
• Social Skills
• Engagement of employees
Mitarbeiter motivieren und
Fü hrung skompetenz aufbauen
MA-Fluktuation
(= Zugänge + Abg änge/
durchs chnittl. Anzahl MA)
...
27,3%
31,4%
strengths and weaknesses
Bewertungs-Portfolio
120%
Prozessleistung
100%
80%
Nutzen von Erfahrungen
Flexibilität/Prozessorganisation
Quantität
Vertraute Kommunikation
Optimaler
Bereich
Fertigungsprozess
Gute Geschäftsbeziehungen
Erfüllungsgrad Kundenanforderungen:
PREIS LIEFERZEIT Technische
Wachstum
Ausführung
60%
Image
MA-Zufriedenheit
Innovation
Engineeringprozess (auch Vertrieb)
MA-Qualifizierung
40%
Structural Capital
• Corporate culture
• Communication
• Organization
• Innovation
20%
Kundenzufriedenheit
Gewinn/Umsatz
Unternehmenskultur Prozessqualität
0%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
120%
Systematik
Qualität
Interdependencies and prioritizaition
10.
Produktinnovation
entwickeln
27.
Finanzieller
Erfolg
>2J
0,25J - 1J
12.
Beziehungsmanagement zu
Kunden
1J - 2J
8.
Kooperation/
Kommunikation/Wissenstransfer
0,25J - 1J
1.
Leistungsprozesse
0,25J - 1J
0,25J - 1J
5. MAMotivation/
Führungskompetenz
Relational Capital
• Customer relations
• Stakeholder relations
• Supplier relations
1J - 2J
28. Image/
Marke
1J - 2J
Starke Wirkung
Sehr starke Wirkung
Regelkreis
J = Jahr
source: www.akwissensbilanz.org
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Projektteam
Geschäftsführung
Project plan to implement an
Intellectual Capital Statement
Vorbereitung
(Projektstart)
Interne
Arbeiten
Workshop 1
Einflussfaktoren,
QQS-Bewertung
Workshop 2
Wirkungsanalyse
Interpretation
Maßnahmen
Workshop 3
Wissensbilanz
finalisieren (intern)
Nachbereitung und
Diagnose
Erfolgsfaktoren und
Indikatoren erheben
Wissensbilanz
zusammenstellen
Laufzeit 3-6 Wochen
Source: www.akwissensbilanz.org
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Geschäftsmodell
Beschreibung von
Strategie, Vision,
Geschäftsprozessen
und -umfeld sowie
Definition von
Geschäfts-erfolgen
Intellekt.
Kapital
Festlegung der
Einflussfaktoren
des intellektuellen
Kapitals
Bewertung
Bewertung der
Einflussfaktoren
nach Qualität,
Quantität und
Systematik
Wirkung
Auswertung
Maßnahmen
Ermittlung der
Einflussfaktoren
mit der größten
Hebelwirkung
Priorisierung der
Einflussfaktoren
gemäß ihrem
Verbesserungspotenzial und ihrer
Hebelwirkung
Definition
geeigneter
Maßnahmen zur
Optimierung der
priorisierten
Einflussfaktoren
Wissensbilanz
Erstellung eines
Abschlussberichtes
•Geschäftsprozesse
•Geschäftserfolg
›
›
Gewinn
Image/Marke
•Humankapital
›
›
Fachkompetenz
Management- und
Sozialkompetenz
•Strukturkapital
› Mitarbeitermotivati
› Unternehmenskult
on
ur
› Kommunikation
und Organisation
•Beziehungskapital
›› Innovationen
Beziehungen zu
Kunden
› Beziehungen zu
Kooperationspartn
ern
› Beziehungen zu
Stakeholdern
1
1
2
2
2
2
3
1
1
source: www.akwissensbilanz.org
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
group exercise
• Please install the Wissensbilanz Toolbox
http://www.akwissensbilanz.org/Toolbox/WB-TB2.zip
• Please start with the „demo project“ and ad three
drivers of Intellectual Capitals including
definitions that seem important for your case.
• Formulate adequate questions for the QQSDimensions for these three new drivers
• Assess these drivers according to strategic
priorities and document the reasoning in the text
box
• Optionally, adopt other drivers to your case in
terms of quantitative measures
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Time table / content structure
Part 1
Part 2
break
Management 2.0
Basic Concepts
Of Knowledge KM methods in
Management
organizations




Introduction

Attributes of
knowledge

Model for KM
Strategies for KM 



Measuring IC
(quick check)

The Future of
Management
Overview to references
and players in KM
Summary of KM methods
Exercise: present the 
essentials of one KM
instrument
Part 4
Understand
Intellectual
the impact
Capital
of knowledge
Statements as
strategic KM
driving
Instrument
change
Part 3
Analyses of Intellectual 
Capital
Introduction to Intellectual
Capital Reporting
Application 
first steps with the ICtoolbox
Individual exercise:

definition of assessment
questions

Test
Interpretation of QQS
portfolio
Impact of Intellectual
Capital? Causes and effects
Modeling the impact of
change measures (case
study)
Implementation of
Knowledge Management
Summary
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Prioritization
Focus of
intervention
What are the
consequences of
measures for
improvement?
Source: www.akwissensbilanz.org
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Example of system dynamics of IC
Praxishandbuch Wissensmanagement
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
What EXACTLY supports
OUR performance?
enterprises as
black box
• What is
knowledge?
• What attributes has
knowledge?
• What is the impact
of knowledge?
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Making complexity visible
0,25J - 1J
1.
Core process
0,25J - 1J
10.
Product
innovation
27.
Financial
Result
>2J
0,25J - 1J
12.
Customer Relations
-
1J -2J
1J - 2J
28. Image
/
8.
Cooperation
/
Communika
tion/
-
0,25J - 1J
5. employee
Engagement
/
-
1J - 2J
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Is our „business model“
supporting our objectives … ?!
Do we actually have a
shared understanding of
our business model?
What is it?
0,2J-1
5J
10
.Produkt
innovation
0,2J-1
5J
entwickeln
1J-2J
8. /
Kooperation
Kommunika
-tion
/W issens
transfer
0,2J-1
5J
0,2J-1
5J
1. Leistungs
prozesse
>2J
12
. Beziehungs
manage
- zu
ment
1J-2J
Kunden
27
.
Finanzieller
Erfolg
28
.Image
/
Marke
1J-2J
5.MA
-/
Motivation
Führungs
kompetenz
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
group exercise 2
• What is the interaction between Intellectual
Capital and business processes?
• What is the impact of KM Methods in this
system?
• What are likely consequences of the intervention
(future outlook / forecast)?
• Please upload your WBP file to moodle. Include
the names of all people involved in the file
name.
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Driver and measure
Visualization of interdependencies:
Definition of status quo und Context / interpretation of the generator /
future outlook
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Discussion of the impact of IC
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
What exactly are the benefits of an
Intellectual Capital Statement ?
We understand the value creation process better
and can optimize it for the future – together.
• Improved transparency about the most important
drivers of Intellectual Capital.
• Shared mental models, about the contribution of
each driver to the strategic priorities.
• Clarity about areas of intervention and measures
to develop the organization.
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Scheme for implementing KM
Praxishandbuch Wissensmanagement
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Example for the life cycle of KM
Praxishandbuch Wissensmanagement
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Summary
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Potential benefits of KM
quantitative
qualitative
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
cost saving
greater customer acquisition rate
improved bottom line
improved profit margin
increased corporate valuation
increased customer loyalty behavior
increased customer retention
increased market share
increased repeat purchases
increased stock valuation
reduces cost of sales
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
better management of ideas
decreased likelihood of employee
defection
greater customer loyalty
increased collaboration with customers
increased customer satisfaction
increased innovation
increased knowledge worker
empowerment
increased knowledge worker productivity
increased knowledge worker satisfaction
increased market leadership
increased organizational stability
increased understanding of customer
needs
positive cultural change
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
KM and cost-benefit?
knowledge management
high
only after securing a
minimum proficiency, the
next challenge shall be
targeted.
Knowledge management
depends on other
management functions and
their structures.
Relation
cost/benefit
information management
process management
human res. management
corporate culture
quality management
low
accounting
low
Bornemann, 2002
Level of organizational development
high
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Summary (1)
• KM is complex and expensive and
attractive only for mature organizations.
but:
• “thriving organizations" without KM will
lose their competitive advantages quite
soon.
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Summary (2)
• KM is “simple" – if you know the concepts (e.g. St.
Gallener Modell / WMF / GfWM / ...)
• KM depends on strategy and objectives
• KM will change ALL processes
• KM is not enforceable (HC =/= financial capital)
• KM builds on the idea of man and influences recruiting
• KM depends on corporate culture (Collaboration /
Participation / division and integration of labor / ... )
• KM must be supported top down
There is no standard remedy for KM available. New
technologies shift the edge and lower barriers of entry.
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Summary (3)
•
•
•
because of rising complexity
because of exponential differentiation of products and services
because of increasing customization and fractioning of markets
differences are marginal but have substantial implications on productivity
and performance of an organization .
In the future, the integration of Intellectual Capital and processes in
organizations will depend on contextual understanding, which will be harder
to acquirer (Pisa), while factual knowledge most likely will be available easy
and cheap.
This might lead to paradox developments:
• knowledgeable and (formally) educated integrators will be paid
handsomely,
• dedicated specialists will attract nice checks too,
• and all others might – because of lacking differentiation – fall behind.
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
“Knowledge Management is
“Wer nur kann, was alle schon
expensive – but so is stupidity!”
können... und nur weiß, was alle
Thomas Davenport
schon wissen, kann auch nur
tun, was bereits alle tun können. “The saddest aspect of life right now
is that science gathers knowledge
Wettbewerbserfolg, setzt immer faster than society gathers wisdom.”
den Willen, die Kraft und die
Issac Asimov
Fähigkeit voraus, anderen mit
eigenständigen
“Now that knowledge is taking the
Wissensfortschritten und
place of capital as the driving force in
Problemlösungen
organizations worldwide, it is all too
voranzugehen”
easy to confuse data with knowledge
and information technology with
Prof. Hubert Markl, Präsident
information.”
der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft
Peter F. Drucker
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Multiple Choice Test
•
•
•
•
This test is essential for the individual grading
All answers are available on these slides
More than one answer is allowed.
No supporting material / technologies are
accepted.
• Additionally, please refer to the standards of
Campus02
All the best
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013
Literature and recommended
reading with general focus
• WMF: guideline for knowledge management
• Al Ali: Comprehensive Intellectual Capital Management,
2003
• Wiig: People focused knowledge management, 2004
• Dierkes et al: Handbook of Organizational Learning and
Knowledge, 2003
• Easterby-Smith: Handbook of Organizational Learning
and Knowledge Management, 2011
• Al-Laham: Wissensmanagement, 2003
• Harvard Business Review on Knowledge Management
1998
Manfred Bornemann: Wissensmanagement 2013

knowledge management - Intangible Assets Consulting GmbH